There are two major types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. The type depends on the way the cells look under a microscope. Each type of lung cancer grows and spreads in different ways and is treated differently.
1. Non-small cell lung cancer is much more common. It usually spreads to different parts of the body more slowly than small cell lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are three types of non-small cell lung cancer.
2. Small cell lung cancer also called oat cell cancer, accounts for about 20 percent of all lung cancer. This type of lung cancer grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other organs in the body.
Researchers have discovered several things that can cause lung cancer, including the following:
- Cigarettes - Stopping smoking greatly reduces a person's risk for developing lung cancer.
- Cigars and Pipes
- Environmental Tobacco Smoke
- Lung Diseases- Certain lung diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), increase a person's chance of developing lung cancer.
Common signs and symptoms of lung cancer include:
- A cough that doesn't go away and gets worse over time
- Constant chest pain
- Coughing up blood
- Shortness of breath, wheezing, or hoarseness
- Repeated problems with pneumonia or bronchitis
- Swelling of the neck and face
- Loss of appetite or weight loss
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The Alvin & Lois Lapidus Cancer Institute offers a multidisciplinary approach to care of patients diagnosed with lung cancer. All of the specialties meet together with the patient and family rather than at separate times. The disciplines involved include surgeons, medical oncologists, pulmonologists, and radiation oncologists. The setting is designed to provide care using the multidisciplinary approach. For an appointment or more information, please call 410-601-0638.
Screening and Diagnosis
Lung cancer diagnosis involves the use of several screening tools. They include:
- Bronchoscopy - A thin, lighted tub is inserted into the mouth or nose and down through the windpipe to look into the breathing passages to collect cells or small samples of tissue.
- Needle Aspiration - A needle is inserted through the chest into the tumor to remove a sample of tissue.
- Thoracentesis - A sample of the fluid that surrounds the lungs is removed via a tube to check for cancer cells.
- Thoracotomy - A Surgical procedure to open the chest to diagnose lung cancer.
CAT or CT Scan (computed tomography) - A computer that creates a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body.
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- An imaging process that uses a powerful magnet linked to a computer to detailed pictures of areas inside the body.
- Radionuclide Scanning - A mildly radioactive substance is swallowed and then a machine (scanner) measures and records the level of radioactivity in certain organs to reveal abnormal areas. One type is a bone scan.
Treatment depends on a number of factors, including the type of lung cancer (non-small or small cell lung cancer), the size, location, and extent of the tumor, and the general health of the patient. Many different treatments and combinations of treatments may be used to control lung cancer, and/or to improve quality of life by reducing symptoms.
Surgery is used to remove the cancer. The type of surgery a doctor performs depends on the location of the tumor in the lung. The surgical procedures are:
- Resection - An operation to remove only a small part of the lung is called a segmental or wedge resection.
- Lobectomy- An operation to remove an entire lobe of the lung.
- Pneumonectomy - An operation to remove an entire lung.
Some tumors are inoperable (cannot be removed by surgery) because of the size or location, and some patients cannot have surgery for other medical reasons.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. The medical oncology/hematology division directs the chemotherapy program at LifeBridge Health.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells. The Department of Radiation Oncology provides the most advanced radiotherapy for many cancers.
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)
PDT is a form of laser therapy involving the use of a special chemical that is injected into the bloodstream and absorbed by cells all over the body. The chemical rapidly leaves normal cells but remains in cancer cells for a longer time. A laser light aimed at the cancer activates the chemical, which then kills the cancer cells that have absorbed it.
Clinical trials are research studies conducted with people who volunteer to take part. The study examines questions and tries to find better ways to prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. People who take part in cancer clinical trials receive up-to-date care from experts.
For trials that are currently available to lung cancer patients click here
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